16 August 2018: Whenever the Gujarat riots are mentioned, Atal Bihari Vajpayee’s ‘Rajdharma’ is definitely discussed. A journalist asked him, have you brought any message for Chief Minister Narendra Modi? To this Vajpayee replied in his inimitable style, ‘I would only say that he should follow Raj Dharma. These words are very meaningful. I am following the same and trying to follow. There can be no distinction between the subjects for the king or the ruler, neither on the basis of birth, nor on the basis of caste and community….” However, soon after this, Atal ji said that he believed that Narendra Modi should follow his Rajdharma. are doing.
The Supreme Court on Friday, 24 June 2022, gave a clean chit to Prime Minister Narendra Modi, the then Gujarat CM, in the Godhra incident.
Former Union Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad said on the plea challenging the clean chit given by the Supreme Court’s Special Investigation Team (SIT) to then Gujarat Chief Minister and current Prime Minister Narendra Modi and 63 others in the 2002 Godhra riots case Friday June 24, 2022 Rejected after hearing. Ravi Shankar said that the petition was filed by Zakia Jafri, wife of Congress MP Ehsan Jafri who was killed in the Gujarat riots. Along with Teesta Setalvad, Ravi Shankar also targeted the Congress, RJD chief Lalu Prasad and the Left parties.
9 December 2022 Gujarat created history, BJP not only won 156 seats but also made a record.
In the electoral history of Gujarat, BJP has registered the biggest and banging victory so far. BJP has created a new history by winning a record 156 seats in the 182-seat assembly. BJP has created a new history by winning a record 156 seats in the 182-seat assembly.
Vedic Rajdharma system
The meaning of Rajdharma is – ‘Religion of the king’ or ‘Duty of the king’. The name of this lesson is ‘Raj Dharma’, how the ruling class has to run the country. The Vedas are the core of the teachings of Rajdharma.
Vidur Prajagar and Shantiparva of Mahabharata, the famous book Arthashastra composed by Chanakya also have a lot of explanation of Rajdharma, Swami Dayanand Saraswati has also written in detail on Rajdharma in Satyarth Prakash. There is a festival of the same name in the Mahabharata, in which Rajdharma has been discussed in detail.
Rajdharma has been discussed in the 7th chapter of Manusmriti.
पुत्र एव पितृगृह विषये यस्य मानवः।
निर्भय विचरिष्यन्ति सा राजा राजसत्तम॥
यथा पुत्रः पित्रग्रहे विश्रामये यस्य मानवाः।
निर्भय विचरिष्यन्ति सहित राजा राजसत्तम॥
In Manusmriti, punishment is the king and punishment is the ruler of the people, the protector of all subjects that is why wise people call punishment as religion. If the king wears the punishment with good intention, it makes all the subjects happy and if it is used without thinking, it destroys the king from all sides.
Chanakya was the general secretary of Chandragupta Maurya. He is also known as Kautilya or Vishnugupta. Being the son of father Shri Chanak, he was called Chanakya. Vishnugupta, a great scholar of diplomacy, economics, politics and due to the ‘devious’ ‘good use’ of his great knowledge, in creative works like public welfare and building a united India; It is called Kautilya.
Rajdharma is discussed in Kautilya’s Arthashastra.
प्रजासुखे सुखं राज्यः प्रजानन च हिते हितम्।
नटमप्रिय प्रिया राज्यः प्रजाना तु प्रियं प्रियं॥ (अर्थशास्त्र 1/19)
(That is, the happiness of the king is in the happiness of the people, his interest is only in the interest of the subjects. The king has nothing to do with his own interest, only the interest of the subjects is his interest.)
तस्मत् स्वधर्म भूतानां राजा न व्यभिचारयेत्।
स्वधर्मसंधानो हि भूत मुख न नंदति॥ (अर्थशास्त्र 1/3)
(That is, the king should not allow the people to deviate from his religion. The king should also follow his religion. The king who follows his religion in this way, remains happy in this world and the next.) Religion of the king It is the land of war. I have not only to kill my enemies but also to save my subjects
According to Mukherjee (2013), good governance has been called Rajdharma in Indian scriptures. Rajdharma was the “code of conduct” or “rule of law” that was superior to the will of the ruler and governed all his actions (Kashyap, 2010). Rajdharma code of conduct i.e. good governance which is mentioned in ancient Indian scriptures like Bhagavad Gita, Vedas, Mahabharata in Sanskrit and Pali, Shantiparva, Nitisara, Ramayana, Arthashastra, Digha Nikaya, Jataka. It is the basic right of all the citizens to get good governance from the government and the government is bound for it.
सर्वे धर्म सोपधर्मस्त्रायणं रण्यो धर्मादिति वेदचुनोमि
एवम धर्मन राजधर्मेषु सरवन सर्वस्तम सम्प्रलिनन निबोध
The essential functions of the state in the form of ethical behavior and moral standards are required for good governance as described in the Atrisanhita:
दुष्टस्य दण्ड सुजानस्य पूजा न्यायेन कोषस्य च संप्रविधि
अपेक्षापथोर्तिर्शु राष्ट्ररक्षा पंचैव यज्ञ कथिता नृपन्नम
In the above verse, five selfless duties have been mentioned which should be performed by the king [state]. (Trisanhita-28).
Kautilya has also included the above principles in the Arthashastra:
प्रजासुखे सुखं राज्य प्रजानन च हिते हितम्
नातम्प्रियं हितं राज्य प्रजनम तु प्रियं हितम्
That is, the happiness of the king lies in the happiness of the subjects.
The duties of the citizens as well as of the government are:
Raj Dharma and Vyavahar Dharma are two sides of the same coin, where the king and the subjects have to follow Dharma – honestly and conscientiously which will result in good governance (Jois, 2017).
Before independence, Rajpath was known as King’s Way and Janpath as Queen’s Way.
After independence, the name of Queens Way was changed to Janpath. While the King’s Way came to be known as Rajpath. After completion of 75 years of independence, it has now been renamed as Kartavya Path. The central government believes that the Rajpath reflects the idea of a king who rules over the ruled. Whereas in a democratic India, the public is supreme. The change in name is an example of public dominance and its empowerment.
“One should behave according to the scriptures” (Bhagavad-gita, Chapter XVI, verse 24).
अक्रोध सत्यवचनम संविभाग क्षमा तथा
प्रजना शेषु दारेषु शौचमद्रोह अव च
आर्जवं ब्रुत्यभरणं नवैते सर्ववर्णिका
“Truth, being free from anger, sharing wealth with others (portfolio), forgiveness, begetting children from one’s wife alone (sexual morality), chastity, absence of enmity, straightforwardness and maintaining persons dependent on oneself are the nine rules.” religion of persons of all varnas” (Mahabharata Shantiparva 6-7-8).
finsindia.org has also thrown light on secularism as religion, king’s responsibilities as supreme court, equality, unity etc.
Supremacy of religion
Merely creating a monarchy was not enough, Dharma was a force superior to the king, created to enable the king to protect and give to the people. The definition of religion is as follows:
तदेतत क्षत्रस्य क्षत्रं युधर्मा, तस्मध धर्मत्परं नास्त्य
अथो अबलियान बलियान समाशमसते धर्मेना, यथा राज्य एवम
“Dharma is the king of kings. None is superior to Dharma; Dharma aided by the power of the king enables the weak to dominate the strong” (Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 1-4-14)
धर्मनिरपेक्षता के रूप में धर्म :
The right to practice one’s religion was recognized in the Raja Dharma Pashandanaigam Category Poovvrata Ganadishu, Prasavratsamayam Raja Durge Janapada (Narada Smriti ( Dharmakosha P-870)
In India where the Vedas were considered supreme, non-believers in the Vedas were to be protected in the same way as those who believed in the Vedas, indicating that under Raj Dharma, religion is secular (Jois, 2017)
Equality: “No one is superior (ajyastaso) or inferior (aknishtas). All are brothers (ete bharatarah). Everyone should strive for the benefit of all and make progress collectively (saubhagyas samva vridhu). ( Rigveda Mandala-5, Sukta-60, Mantra-5)
Everyone has an equal right to the commodities of food and water. The yoke of the chariot of life is placed equally on everyone’s shoulders. All must live together supporting each other, like the axle of a chariot wheel connecting its rim and hub” (Atharvaveda-Sangyan Sukta).
Governance and Equality in Ramayana: Despite there being no written constitution of Ramarajya, the citizens had the right to equality and the path of development was open to all. All were equal in the eyes of the law.
Governance and Equality was also present in the Mahabharata as Ramayan.